COPY/PRINT SERVICES AND GUIDELINES
Return to General Services
How to Get Services
1. Forward or deliver requests for services to General Services.
2. Prepare your job to “machine”-ready status, or have a previous sample of the work to be done on file.
3. Discuss the possible methods of completing the job with General Services.
Come to a consensus of the appropriate method.
4. Proceed with method agreed upon.
- Special Order Publications
- Jobs with Pictures
- Large volume jobs
Copy/Print Request Timelines
General Services will print jobs suitable for the SUNO community. The following is a minimum timetable for job requests. Actual time will depend upon jobs already in queue:
- Routine copying: Minimum notice, 1 day
- Brochures, handbooks, applications, banners: Minimum notice, 1 week
- Publications containing photos: Minimum notice: 2 weeks
Emergency requests will be received and accommodated when possible, but only in true emergency situations. Otherwise, jobs will go in rotation and be completed as quickly as possible.
The printing request form has a signature block for printing approval. Each job submitted to General Services must have the signature approval of the requestor. It is the responsibility of the requestor to proofread the document.
Copy Center Services Available
1. Duplicating all work
2. Special handling
- Hole Punch
- Bind and Fold
- Cutting ¼ and ½ Page ONLY
*General Services cannot provide the service folding brochures.
Chargeback is in place for General Services as they are for other college services.
Perspectives and the Fair Use Doctrine - The Educator’s Viewpoint
The 1909 Law
Educators have for years sought “a simple, clear description” of what the members of the scholarly community may, and may not, copy under the various provisions of the Copyright Law. In the 1909 law, the doctrine of “fair use” was neither spelled out nor was it statutory. The 1909 law left the meaning of fair use entirely to the courts to apply on an individual case basis. The teacher thus had neither guides nor protection under the law. In most instances, teachers had no idea of what constituted fair use of materials in the classroom. Nor did copyright lawyers know for a certainty what constituted fair use. Educators have worked valiantly to correct this situation.
The 1976 Law (Effective January 1, 1978)
In the 1976 copyright law, Congress has taken the amorphous doctrine of fair use and caused it to be translated into a reasonably reliable and certain guide for teachers in their uses of materials. Under the 1976 law, teachers, librarians and researchers are given specific guidelines and protection with respect to classroom and library photocopying and the educational uses of music. For the first time in history, the law codifies the fair use doctrine. It refers to purposes such as criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching, scholarship or research and specifies four criteria to be considered in determining whether or not a particular instance of copying or other reproduction is fair. For the first time, also, the law specifies clearly after the word “teaching” the phrase “including multiple copies for classroom use” which is a considerable achievement for education’s uses of materials. Depending upon the circumstances, fair use might not cover the making of multiple copies as well as the making of a single copy of an article or short whole work.
The new law admittedly does not give teachers “a simple, clear description” of what is fair use in all situations. There are number of areas still left to be decided, such as off-air-taping of television and radio programs and the use of educational media and technology. There are also gray areas which can only be settled on a case by case basis. A substantial number of educators feel the situation is still elusive because the language of the Act is uncertain. They argue that the law contains so many “ifs,” “ands,” “buts,” and “unlesses” that it defies certitude. They maintain that the Senate and House Committees produced statutory language that gives legalistic comfort to practically everyone, but simple aid to no one!
Nevertheless, there is a growing consensus within the educational community that for the preponderance of copyrighted materials needed by the classroom teacher in the course of teaching, there is guaranteed protection in the new law. The guidelines - negotiated between the publishers and the educators - are minimum, not maximum. They provide floor below which teachers cannot be pushed. The guidelines provide that certain uses of copyrighted works are mandatory permitted. Likewise, certain practices beyond the guidelines may still be permitted although these are not specified and must be determined on a case by case basis. There are also uses which are considered “over and above fair use” which are clearly unauthorized without permission and payment of the royalty fee required.
The guidelines emphasize three key words in ascertaining fair use in any given situation: spontaneity, brevity and cumulative effect. Further, the same general standards of air use are applicable to all kinds of uses of copyrighted materials, although the relative weight to be given them will differ from case to case.
The fair use provision, as we see it, is a safety valve which allows teachers, scholars and researchers to use materials in the public interest.
What an Instructor May Copy
A teacher/instructor may:
1. Make a single copy of the following:
- A chapter from a book
- An article from a periodical or newspaper
- A short story, short essay or short poem, whether or not from a collective work
- A chart, graph, diagram, drawing, cartoon or picture from a book, periodical, or newspaper
- A short excerpt (up to 10%) from a performable unit of music, such as a song, movement, or section, for study purposes
2. Make multiple copies (not to exceed one per pupil) for classroom use of the following:
- A complete poem if less than 250 words (and if printed on not more than two pages)
- An excerpt of not more than 250 words from a longer poem
- A complete article, story or essay of less than 2,500 words
- An excerpt from any prose work of not more than 1,000 words (or 10% of the work), which ever is less, but in any event a minimum of 500 words
- One chart, graph, diagram, drawing, cartoon or picture per book or per periodical issue
- An excerpt of not more than two pages of a “special work” (such as children’s poetry, prose or poetic prose) containing words and pictures, but not to exceed 10% of the words in the text
- Up to 10% of a performable unit of music (song, movement, section) for academic purposes other than performance
3. Make a single recording of student performances for evaluation, rehearsal, or archival purposes
4. Make a single recording of aural exercises or examination questions using excerpts from recorded copyright materials
5. Make an emergency replacement copy to substitute for a purchased copy that is not available for an imminent musical performance
6. Display a copy of a work on an opaque projector
7. Make a single transparency, provided the fair use criteria and guidelines are complied with (See 1., bullet 4)
NOTE: The above copying is mandatory permitted under the fair use guidelines appearing in the House Report. The guidelines set up minimum and not the maximum standards of fair use so other uses may or may not be permitted, depending on the circumstances.
What an Instructor May NOT Copy
A teacher/instructor may not:
1. Copy to create anthologies, compilations or collective works or to replace or substitute for them.
2. Copy from works which are intended to be consumable (workbooks, exercises,
standardized tests and test booklets, and answer sheets).
3. Copy so as to substitute for the purchase of books, publishers’ reprints, periodicals, music or recordings.
4. Copy on direction of higher authority (supervisor, coordinating teacher, principal or if prescribed by the course of study).
5. Copy the same item from term to term without securing permission.
6. Copy more than one short work (poem, article, story, essay) or two excerpts from one author’s works in any one term.
7. Copy the same material for more than one course in the school in which the copies are made.
8. Copy more than three short works from the same collective work or periodical volume during one class term.
9. Utilize more than nine instances of multiple copying per course, per term.
10. Make copies of music (or lyrics) from performance of any kind in the classroom or outside of it, with the exception of the emergency replacement copy needed for an imminent musical performance.
11. Make copies without inclusion of the copyright notice.
12. Charge students more than the actual cost of the authorized copies.